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Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy

Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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  • Major cause of maternal/fetal morbidity and mortality
  • Early pregnancy hemorrhage (≤20 wk):
    • Occurs in 30% of all pregnancies
    • 50% lead to spontaneous abortion
  • Late pregnancy hemorrhage (>20 wk):
    • Occurs in 3–5% of all pregnancies
  • Risk factors:
    • Advanced maternal age
    • Substance abuse
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • Previous cesarean section
    • Previous termination of pregnancy
    • Previous dilation and curettage (D&C)
    • Previous ectopic pregnancy
    • Increased parity
    • Multiple gestation
    • Preeclampsia
    • Hypertension
    • Trauma
    • Use of assisted reproductive technology
  • Genetics:
    • 50–60% of miscarriages due to chromosomal abnormalities


  • Vaginal
  • Cervical
  • Uterine
  • Uterine–placental interface
  • Hematologic dysfunction

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Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307531/all/Vaginal_Bleeding_in_Pregnancy.
Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307531/all/Vaginal_Bleeding_in_Pregnancy. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307531/all/Vaginal_Bleeding_in_Pregnancy
Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307531/all/Vaginal_Bleeding_in_Pregnancy.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Vaginal Bleeding in Pregnancy ID - 307531 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307531/all/Vaginal_Bleeding_in_Pregnancy PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -