Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests.

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Organism

Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

Carbapenemase production in the Enterobacteriaceae was unknown until early 2000s. Almost all carbapenem-resistant isolates were sporadic cases of hyperproduction of a beta-lactamase (AmpC or ESBL) combined with porin loss.

In 2001, there was the first report of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ; it carried a new carbapenemase, KPC enzyme.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM1) has been described in patients infected with Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae during surgery in India and Pakistan.

Outbreaks have been seen worldwide since 2003 of OXA-48 carbapenemase in K. pneumoniae , resulting in resistance to all beta-lactams.

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