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Arboviruses (California encephalitis group, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern and western equine encephalitis, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus in summer and fall), enteroviruses (coxsackie, echo, polio), HSV (10–20%), Bartonella henselae , lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, measles, rubella, VZV, HHV-6, rabies (Central and South America, India, Africa), Nipah virus (Malaysia), Chikungunya virus (India and Nepal), Creutzfeldt-Jakob.
Immunocompromised: CMV, VZV, EBV, West Nile virus, JC virus, HIV, Toxoplasma gondii.
Note the increasing recognition of antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis as cause of acute encephalitis. In studies of acute encephalitis, 40–50% of patients had infectious cause, 20% had immune-mediated cause including anti-NMDAR (N-methyl-D-asparte receptor) encephalitis and anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) encephalitis, and 30% remained of unknown cause.
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McPhee, Stephen J., et al. "Encephalitis." Guide to Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2017. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/GDT/619323/all/Encephalitis.
McPhee SJ, Lu CM, Nicoll D. Encephalitis. Guide to Diagnostic Tests. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/GDT/619323/all/Encephalitis. Accessed October 13, 2019.
McPhee, S. J., Lu, C. M., & Nicoll, D. (2017). Encephalitis. In Guide to Diagnostic Tests. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/GDT/619323/all/Encephalitis
McPhee SJ, Lu CM, Nicoll D. Encephalitis [Internet]. In: Guide to Diagnostic Tests. McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. [cited 2019 October 13]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/GDT/619323/all/Encephalitis.
TY - ELEC
T1 - Encephalitis
ID - 619323
A1 - McPhee,Stephen J,
AU - Lu,Chuanyi Mark,
AU - Nicoll,Diana,
BT - Guide to Diagnostic Tests
UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/GDT/619323/all/Encephalitis
PB - McGraw-Hill Education
ET - 7
DB - Emergency Central
DP - Unbound Medicine