• Congenital nystagmus
  • Medications, eg, anticonvulsants, lithium
  • Alcohol intoxication
  • Demyelinating disease, eg, multiple sclerosis
  • Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
  • Brainstem stroke
  • Head trauma
  • Positioning vertigo
  • Thiamine deficiency
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Neoplasm
  • Arnold–Chiari malformation
  • Encephalitis
  • Extreme lateral gaze (often normal)
  • Opticokinetic nystagmus (normal; occurs when one attempts to focus on a rapidly moving object, eg, a train)

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