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Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Prerenal azotemia

  • Dehydration
  • Hemorrhage, e.g., GI bleeding
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Renal artery stenosis including fibromuscular dysplasia
  • NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors
Postrenal azotemia
  • Obstruction, e.g., BPH, bladder tumor, pelvic mass
Intrinsic renal disease Acute tubular necrosis
  • Toxins: NSAIDs, antibiotics, contrast, multiple myeloma, rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, chemotherapy, hyperuricemia, cyclosporine
  • Ischemia, e.g., prolonged prerenal azotemia
Acute glomerulonephritis
  • Immune complex: IgA nephropathy, endocarditis, SLE, cryoglobulinemia, postinfectious, membranoproliferative, Henoch-Schönlein purpura
  • Pauci-immune (ANCA+): Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyarteritis
  • Anti-GBM: Goodpasture's syndrome, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis
  • Other: malignant hypertension, TTP, scleroderma renal crisis, preeclampsia-eclampsia
Acute interstitial nephritis
  • Drugs: beta-lactams, sulfa, diuretics, NSAIDs, rifampin, phenytoin, allopurinol
  • Infections: Streptococcus, leptospirosis, CMV, histoplasmosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Immune: SLE, Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, cryoglobulinemia

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Last updated: December 1, 2014


Zeiger, Roni F.. "Acute Renal Failure." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114955/all/Acute_renal_failure.
Zeiger RF. Acute renal failure. Diagnosaurus. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114955/all/Acute_renal_failure. Accessed April 24, 2019.
Zeiger, R. F. (2014). Acute renal failure. In Diagnosaurus. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114955/all/Acute_renal_failure
Zeiger RF. Acute Renal Failure [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. [cited 2019 April 24]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114955/all/Acute_renal_failure.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Acute renal failure ID - 114955 A1 - Zeiger,Roni F, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ BT - Diagnosaurus UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114955/all/Acute_renal_failure PB - McGraw-Hill Education ET - 4 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -