- Withdrawal from other sedatives, e.g., benzodiazepines or opioids
- Drug intoxication, e.g., cocaine, amphetamines
- Delirium due to medical illness, e.g., hypoxia, hepatic encephalopathy, thiamine deficiency, bacteremia
- Anxiety disorder
- Hallucinosis due to other causes, e.g., schizophrenia, amphetamine psychosis
- Seizure due to other causes, e.g., hypoglycemia, epilepsy
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