Altered mental status
- Opioids, alcohol, sedatives, antipsychotics, withdrawal, others
- Hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, uremia, hepatic encephalopathy, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, vitamin B12 or thiamine deficiency, carbon monoxide poisoning, Wilson’s disease
- Meningitis, encephalitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, neurosyphilis
- Space-occupying lesion, eg, brain tumor, subdural hematoma, hydrocephalus
- Stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, coronary ischemia, hypertensive encephalopathy, CNS vasculitis, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hyperviscosity
- Schizophrenia, depression, mania
- Seizure, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, hypothermia, heat stroke, ICU psychosis, "sundowning"
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