Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Etiology

Systemic insults

  • Trauma, sepsis, shock, burns
  • Pancreatitis
  • Multiple transfusions
  • DIC, TTP
  • Drugs: opioids, aspirin, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, amiodarone, chemotherapeutics, nitrofurantoin, protamine
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass
  • Head injury
  • Paraquat
Pulmonary insults
  • Aspiration of gastric contents
  • Embolism of thrombus, fat, air, or amniotic fluid
  • Miliary tuberculosis
  • Diffuse pneumonia
  • Acute eosinophilic pneumonia
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)
  • Upper airway obstruction
  • Freebase cocaine smoking
  • Near-drowning
  • Toxic gas inhalation: nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, smoke inhalation
  • Oxygen toxicity
  • Lung contusion
  • Radiation
  • High altitude exposure
  • Lung re-expansion or reperfusion

DDx

  • Cardiogenic (hydrostatic) pulmonary edema
  • Pneumonia
  • Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP)

See related DDx

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Last updated: December 1, 2014