• Cystic fibrosis
  • Infection: tuberculosis, fungal, abscess, pneumonia, parasites
  • Localized airway obstruction: retained foreign body, tumor, mucoid impaction
  • Abnormal lung defense mechanisms
    • Hypogammaglobulinemia
    • Common variable immunodeficiency
    • Selective IgA, IgM, and IgG subclass deficiency
    • Acquired immunodeficiency from cytotoxic drugs, AIDS, lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease
    • Alpha-1-antiprotease deficiency with cigarette smoking
    • Mucociliary clearance disorders (immotile cilia syndrome)
    • Rheumatic disease, eg, rheumatoid arthritis

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Last updated: December 1, 2014