Choledocholithiasis & cholangitis


  • Cancer of the pancreas, ampulla of Vater, or common duct
  • Acute hepatitis
  • Biliary stricture
  • Chronic cholestatic liver disease, e.g., primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, drug toxicity
  • Pancreatitis
  • Sepsis due to other causes
  • Underlying Ascaris, Clonorchis, or hydatid disease

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Last updated: December 1, 2014