Congestive heart failure


Left ventricular failure

  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy (eg, myocardial infarction)
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiomyopathy (eg, idiopathic, alcoholic)
  • Valvular disease (eg, aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mitral regurgitation)
  • Volume overload including thiazolidinediones, eg, rosiglitazone
  • Arrhythmia, eg, atrial fibrillation
  • High-output states
  • Chagas’ disease
Right ventricular failure
  • Usually left ventricular failure (left-sided congestive heart failure)
  • Cor pulmonale (right heart failure due to pulmonary disease)
  • Chronic pulmonary embolism
  • Right-sided valve disease
Diastolic dysfunction
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Hypertension
  • Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Diabetes
High output heart failure
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Severe anemia
  • Arteriovenous shunting
  • Paget’s disease of the bone
  • Beriberi
  • Hepatic hemangiomatosis
  • Sepsis
  • Carcinoid

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Last updated: December 1, 2014