• Medications (e.g., calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, digitalis, clonidine, other sympatholytics, amiodarone, other antiarrhythmics)
  • Normal (especially athletes)
  • Sick sinus syndrome
  • Vasovagal response
  • Atrioventricular block
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Myocardial ischemia involving right coronary artery
  • Increased intracranial pressure (Cushing's reflex)
  • Cardiac infiltrative disease (e.g., amyloid, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis)

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Last updated: December 1, 2014