• Arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, sick sinus syndrome, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, atrioventricular block)
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
  • Pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary stenosis
  • Atrial myxoma
  • Orthostatic or postural hypotension
    • Hypovolemia
    • Drugs, eg, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, vasodilators, diuretics
    • Autonomic insufficiency, eg, diabetes, adrenal insufficiency, spinal cord lesion, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic idiopathic orthostatic hypotension
  • Situational, eg, micturition, defecation, cough, swallow
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity

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Last updated: December 1, 2014