Chronic visual loss


  • Refractive error
  • Cataract
  • Macular degeneration (atrophic)
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Glaucoma
  • Corneal opacity, eg, scar, pterygium
  • Chronic uveitis
  • Pituitary tumor (bitemporal)
  • Other types of retinopathy, eg, hypertensive, sickle cell, severe anemia, radiation, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), talc (emboli from IV drug use)
  • Cerebrovascular disease or brain tumor affecting visual pathways
  • Intraorbital tumor
  • Toxic optic neuropathy, eg, methanol
  • Lens dislocation, eg, Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria
  • Optic neuritis from multiple sclerosis
  • Other worldwide causes: trachoma, Hansen’s disease (leprosy), onchocerciasis, xerophthalmia (vitamin A deficiency)

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Last updated: March 5, 2015