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Muscle cramps or tetany

Muscle cramps or tetany is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Nocturnal leg cramps

  • Idiopathic
  • Diabetes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • CNS or spinal cord disease
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Hemodialysis
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Drugs: cisplatin, vincristine
Other causes of muscle cramps
  • Muscle injury, eg, sports
  • Dehydration
  • Hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia
  • Alkalosis (eg, vomiting, hyperventilation)
  • Vascular insufficiency (claudication)
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Dystonia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Celiac disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Black widow spider bite
  • McArdle’s disease (muscle fatigue, cramping, high CK)

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Last updated: December 1, 2014


Zeiger, Roni F.. "Muscle Cramps or Tetany." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114297/all/Muscle_cramps_or_tetany.
Zeiger RF. Muscle cramps or tetany. Diagnosaurus. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114297/all/Muscle_cramps_or_tetany. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Zeiger, R. F. (2014). Muscle cramps or tetany. In Diagnosaurus. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114297/all/Muscle_cramps_or_tetany
Zeiger RF. Muscle Cramps or Tetany [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114297/all/Muscle_cramps_or_tetany.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Muscle cramps or tetany ID - 114297 A1 - Zeiger,Roni F, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ BT - Diagnosaurus UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/Diagnosaurus/114297/all/Muscle_cramps_or_tetany PB - McGraw-Hill Education ET - 4 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -