• Increased caloric intake
  • Fluid retention: congestive heart failure (CHF), cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome
  • Cushing’s syndrome, eg, exogenous corticosteroids (central obesity)
  • Hypothyroidism (edema and fat accumulation)
  • Alcoholism (via hypercortisolism)
  • Menopause (decreased metabolic rate)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Syndrome X (obesity, diabetes, and hypertension)
  • Insulinoma (hypoglycemia causing overeating)
  • Insulin or thiazolidinedione therapy (worsen obesity)
  • Other drugs, eg, antipsychotics, antidepressants
  • Pregnancy
  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Hypothalamic disorders
  • Congenital leptin deficiency (morbid obesity)
  • Defects in ?-MSH (melanocortin 4) receptor (morbid obesity)
  • Genetic syndromes of obesity and mental retardation
    • Prader-Willi syndrome (hypotonia, hypogonadism)
    • Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome (polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinitis pigmentosa, hypogonadism)
    • Cohen’s syndrome (microcephaly, hypotonia, short stature, ocular anomalies, neutropenia)
    • Biemond syndrome (diabetes mellitus, polydactyly, coloboma, facial anomalies, hypogonadism)

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Last updated: December 1, 2014