Needlestick is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Mechanisms of exposure to blood or body fluid:
    • Percutaneous
    • Mucous membrane
    • Skin
  • General prevention:
    • Universal precautions
    • Avoid recapping of needles
    • Wear gloves: Decreases amount of blood exposure by 50%
    • Double gloving
    • Follow body–substance isolation protocols.
    • Hepatitis B virus vaccination
  • Risk factors:
    • Risk of seroconversion from a single needlestick exposure without prior immunization:
      • Hepatitis B virus: 37–62% from HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive source, 23–37% from HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-negative source
      • Hepatitis C virus: 1.8%
      • HIV: Blood 0.3%, mucous membrane 0.09%
    • Infectiousness of various body fluids for HIV:
      • Plasma/serum: 10–5,000 ppm
      • CSF: 10–1,000 ppm
      • Semen: 10–50 ppm
      • Vaginal secretions, urine, saliva, tears, breast milk: <1 ppm
    • Factors affecting risk:
      • Viral load
      • Actual injection volume
      • Type and size of needle
      • Portal of entry (depth of inoculation)
      • Duration of contact
      • Level of disease in source patient
      • Host susceptibility
      • Barriers (e.g., through gloves)

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Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Needlestick ID - 307699 Y1 - 2016 PB - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307699/all/Needlestick ER -