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Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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  • TIA – an episode of reversible neurologic deficit caused by a temporary decrease in blood flow to an area of the central nervous system (CNS)
  • Classically described as symptoms lasting <24 hr, but most TIA symptoms resolve in <1 hr
  • A warning for stroke, as 12–30% of strokes will be preceded by TIA


  • Transient decrease in perfusion to an area of the CNS, which can be caused by:
    • Thrombosis in medium to large arteries with atherosclerosis (25%)
    • Intracranial small vessel disease (25%)
    • Embolic cause from the heart (20%)
    • Miscellaneous, including arterial dissection, vasculitis, and hypercoagulable states (5%)
    • No clear predisposing vascular cause found (25%)

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Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307693/all/Transient_Ischemic_Attack__TIA_.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307693/all/Transient_Ischemic_Attack__TIA_. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307693/all/Transient_Ischemic_Attack__TIA_
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307693/all/Transient_Ischemic_Attack__TIA_.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) ID - 307693 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307693/all/Transient_Ischemic_Attack__TIA_ PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -