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Retro-Orbital Hematoma

Retro-Orbital Hematoma is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Also known as retrobulbar hematoma
  • Rare complication of orbital trauma and facial surgery
  • Collection of blood behind the globe causing increased retro-orbital pressure leading to tissue ischemia
  • Vision loss can occur within 90 min if not diagnosed and treated with irreversible damage at 120 min
  • A sight-saving procedure called lateral canthotomy is often needed to be performed in the emergency department
  • A thorough exam is needed as many patients with ROH may be unconscious
  • Frequent repeat exams are mandatory due to hematoma progression

Epidemiology

  • Incidence is difficult to estimate because ROH can be from multiple causes, both traumatic and iatrogenic.
    • 0.45–3% of blunt or penetrating trauma
    • 0.45–0.6% coexist with orbital wall fractures
    • 0.0052% of blepharoplasty
    • 0.3% of surgical facial fracture repair
    • 0.006% of endoscopic sinus surgery
  • True incidence has been debated as only slightly more than half of diagnosed retro-orbital hemorrhage has been confirmed either with a preceding CT scan or with the presence of an evacuated hematoma.

Etiology

  • Trauma to the globe or orbital walls and the orbital plexus
  • Rapid increasing pressure behind the orbit secondary to hematoma formation impedes venous outflow and arterial inflow to the retina and the optic nerve to cause orbital compartment syndrome
  • There may also be a stretching to the optic nerve as the patient develops proptosis which contributes to the decrease in visual acuity

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Retro-Orbital Hematoma." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307684/all/Retro_Orbital_Hematoma.
Retro-Orbital Hematoma. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307684/all/Retro_Orbital_Hematoma. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Retro-Orbital Hematoma. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307684/all/Retro_Orbital_Hematoma
Retro-Orbital Hematoma [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307684/all/Retro_Orbital_Hematoma.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Retro-Orbital Hematoma ID - 307684 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307684/all/Retro_Orbital_Hematoma PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -