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Parkinson Disease

Parkinson Disease is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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  • Gradual progressive neurologic disorder of middle or late life
  • Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra
  • Development of Lewy bodies in the residual dopaminergic neurons
  • Accelerated cortical atrophy
  • Can begin unilaterally, but generalizes to symmetric
  • Affects 1% of people >60 yr; 4% >80 yr
  • May have symptoms 20 yr prior to diagnosis
    • Nonspecific:
      • Fatigue
      • Constipation
      • Hyposomia


  • Sporadic or idiopathic
  • Disorders presenting with parkinsonism:
    • Drug induced:
      • Parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome (dopaminergic drug withdrawal)
      • Amphotericin B
      • Chemotherapeutic drugs
      • Neuroleptic treatment induced
    • Toxins:
      • Carbon monoxide
      • Methanol
      • Cyanide
      • Organophosphate poisoning
      • 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
    • Brain lesions:
      • Basal ganglia stroke
      • Midbrain lesions
      • Hydrocephalus
    • Infections:
      • Mycoplasma
      • Viral encephalitis
    • Other:
      • Central pontine myelinosis
      • Encephalitis lethargica (autoantibodies against basal ganglia antigens)

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Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Parkinson Disease." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307675/all/Parkinson_Disease.
Parkinson Disease. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307675/all/Parkinson_Disease. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Parkinson Disease. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307675/all/Parkinson_Disease
Parkinson Disease [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307675/all/Parkinson_Disease.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Parkinson Disease ID - 307675 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307675/all/Parkinson_Disease PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -