DescriptionTuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease with protean manifestations, causing significant global morbidity and mortality
- Infectious droplet nuclei are inhaled through the respiratory tract
- Bacteria are dispersed through coughing, sneezing, speaking, and singing
- Primary TB/latent TB infection (LTBI):
- Initial infection occurs when organisms enter the alveoli, become engulfed by macrophages, and spread via regional lymph nodes to the bloodstream
- Patients are usually asymptomatic
- May be progressive/fatal in immunocompromised hosts
- Positive reaction to purified protein derivative (PPD) indicates past exposure or infection
- Negative PPD does not rule out active TB
- May progress to active TB (5–10%)
- Reactivation TB:
- LTBI becomes active TB
- Systemic (15%) and pulmonary (85%) symptoms
- TB has an incidence of 2.9 cases per 100,000 in the U.S.
- 2016 had the lowest number of reported new cases
- Out of the approximately 9,200 new cases reported, 67% were foreign born and 86% were HIV positive
- TB is the leading cause of death in those with HIV worldwide
- Still an estimated 10–15 million people are infected in the U.S. alone
- Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slow-growing, aerobic, acid-fast bacillus resulting in disease
- Humans are the only known reservoir
- Recent TB epidemics:
- HIV-infected patients
- Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)
- Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB):
- High mortality, few effective drugs
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Tuberculosis." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307620/all/Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307620/all/Tuberculosis. Accessed June 6, 2023.
Tuberculosis. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307620/all/Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 06]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307620/all/Tuberculosis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Tuberculosis ID - 307620 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307620/all/Tuberculosis PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -