Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Emergency Central

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Basics

Description

  • Chronic, multisystem disorder characterized by local accumulation of T lymphocytes and mononuclearphagocytes forming noncaseating epithelioid granulomas
  • Symptoms mainly due to organ dysfunction due to disruption of local tissue architecture:
    • Predominance of lung symptoms
  • ACE and Vitamin D levels may be increased due to secretion from granulomatous tissue
  • Prevalence 10–20/100,000 in US and Europe
  • Affects almost all races and geographic locations
  • Symptoms typically begin in patients 10–40 yr of age
  • 2.4% lifetime risk to blacks in US, relative to whites at 0.85%

Etiology

Unclear, but appears to be an overly robust cell-mediated immune response to unidentified self- or nonself antigen(s)

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