Cholecystitis is caused by an inflammatory/infectious process involving the gallbladder (GB) wall, in many cases due to impacted gallstones
- Acute calculous cholecystitis:
- Owing to bile stasis secondary to prolonged obstruction by a gallstone (see “Cholelithiasis”) in the GB neck, cystic duct, or common bile duct
- Leads to increased intraluminal pressure and mucosal ischemia of the GB wall
- Release of inflammatory mediators results in distention, edema, and increased vascularity
- Bacterial inflammation involved in 50–58% of cases – typically a secondary event occurring late in course of disease
- Acalculous cholecystitis:
- 20% of cases
- Underlying critical illness leads to biliary stasis and mucosal ischemia
- Subsequent mucosal inflammation and infection
- Acute calculous cholecystitis extremely rare in childhood (see “Cholelithiasis”)
- Acalculous cholecystitis more common than calculous form in children:
- Associated with systemic bacterial infections, scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, and parasitic infections
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Cholecystitis." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307605/all/Cholecystitis.
Cholecystitis. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307605/all/Cholecystitis. Accessed June 9, 2023.
Cholecystitis. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307605/all/Cholecystitis
Cholecystitis [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 09]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307605/all/Cholecystitis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Cholecystitis ID - 307605 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307605/all/Cholecystitis PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -