- 2.7 million children (<18 yr) affected annually in the U.S.
- 850,000 ED visits per year in the U.S.
- Inflammatory events, usually viral, lead to bronchoconstriction:
- Compounded by hyperreactivity of airways
- Mediators of the inflammatory cascade exacerbate symptoms
- Airway obstruction produces increased airway resistance and gas trapping:
- Mucosal edema
- Mucous plugging
- Infants more vulnerable to respiratory failure:
- Increased peripheral resistance
- Decreased elastic recoil with early airway closure
- Unstable rib cage
- Mechanically disadvantaged diaphragm
- Family history of allergy
- Medical history of early injury to airway (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pneumonia, intubation, croup, reflux, passive exposure to smoking), reactions to foods and drugs, other allergic manifestations
- Environmental exposures such as pets, smoke, carpets, or dust may trigger or exacerbate
- Environment: Pollens, grasses, mold, house dust mites, and animal dander
- Occupational chemicals: Chlorine, ammonia – food and additives
- Irritants: Smoke, pollutants, gases, and aerosols
- Cold weather
- Emotional: Stress, phobia
- Intoxication: β-blockers, aspirin, NSAIDs
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Asthma, Pediatric." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307595/5.0/Asthma_Pediatric.
Asthma, Pediatric. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307595/5.0/Asthma_Pediatric. Accessed May 28, 2023.
Asthma, Pediatric. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307595/5.0/Asthma_Pediatric
Asthma, Pediatric [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 May 28]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307595/5.0/Asthma_Pediatric.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Asthma, Pediatric ID - 307595 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307595/5.0/Asthma_Pediatric PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -