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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Emergency Central

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Basics

Description

Disease characterized by elevation of intraocular pressure, optic neuropathy, and progressive loss of vision.

Etiology

  • Primary glaucoma:
    • Open-angle glaucoma:
      • Normal anterior chamber angle
      • Insidious onset with persistent rise in intraocular pressure
      • Most common type accounting for 90% of glaucomas in US
      • Leading cause of blindness in African Americans
      • Risk factors include African American, age >40 yr, family history, myopia, diabetes, and HTN
    • Acute angle-closure glaucoma:
      • Narrowing or closing of anterior chamber angle precluding natural flow of aqueous humor from posterior to anterior chamber of eye and through its filtering portion of trabecular meshwork
      • Usually abrupt onset with sudden increase in intraocular pressure
      • Risk factors include Asians and Eskimos, hyperopia, family history, increased age, and female gender
  • Secondary glaucoma occurs from other diseases, including diseases of eye, trauma, and drugs:
    • Can be either open or closed angle
    • Drugs: Steroids, sertraline, bronchodilators, topiramate
    • Diseases: Neurofibromatosis, uveitis, neovascularization, and intraocular tumors
    • Trauma
    • Rapid correction of hyperglycemia

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Glaucoma." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307588/all/Glaucoma.
Glaucoma. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307588/all/Glaucoma. Accessed April 26, 2019.
Glaucoma. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307588/all/Glaucoma
Glaucoma [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 26]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307588/all/Glaucoma.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Glaucoma ID - 307588 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307588/all/Glaucoma PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -