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Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Hyperemesis Gravidarum is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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  • Hyperemesis gravidarum is the most severe form along the continuum of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
  • Also known as pernicious vomiting of pregnancy
  • Characterized by unexplained intractable vomiting and dehydration
  • Occurs in 0.3–2% of pregnancies
  • Diagnosis of exclusion


  • Exact cause unknown
  • Possible causes include the following:
    • Elevated gestational hormone levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and/or estradiol
    • Thyrotoxicosis
    • Upper GI motility dysfunction
    • Hepatic abnormalities
    • Autonomic nervous system dysfunction
    • Psychological factors
    • Helicobacter pylori infection
    • Genetic predisposition

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Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Hyperemesis Gravidarum." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307550/all/Hyperemesis_Gravidarum.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307550/all/Hyperemesis_Gravidarum. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307550/all/Hyperemesis_Gravidarum
Hyperemesis Gravidarum [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307550/all/Hyperemesis_Gravidarum.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hyperemesis Gravidarum ID - 307550 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307550/all/Hyperemesis_Gravidarum PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -