- Neuroexcitation is the hallmark of benzodiazepine, barbiturate, and opiate withdrawal
- Benzodiazepine and barbiturate withdrawal can be life threatening
- Opiate withdrawal can be extremely uncomfortable but is not typically life threatening
- Cocaine and amphetamine withdrawal are similarly not life threatening
- Chronic exposure to certain drugs cause adaptive changes in the CNS
- Withdrawal syndromes occur when the constant presence of drug is removed or reduced and the adaptive changes persist
- Tolerance occurs when increasing amounts of drug are required to achieve a given response
- Withdrawal and tolerance are distinct entities
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Withdrawal, Drug." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307514/all/Withdrawal_Drug.
Withdrawal, Drug. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307514/all/Withdrawal_Drug. Accessed June 6, 2023.
Withdrawal, Drug. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307514/all/Withdrawal_Drug
Withdrawal, Drug [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 06]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307514/all/Withdrawal_Drug.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Withdrawal, Drug ID - 307514 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307514/all/Withdrawal_Drug PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -