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Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Severity depends on serum calcium level and rate of increase
  • 0.1–1% of patients on routine screening
  • Most cases mild (<12 mg/dL) and asymptomatic
  • Hypercalcemic crisis, usually >14 mg/dL, causes serious signs and symptoms
  • Calcium in bloodstream in 3 forms:
    • Ionized: 45%
    • Bound to protein (primarily albumin): 40%
    • Bound to other anions: 15%
  • Ionized calcium—only physiologically active form

Etiology

  • Primary hyperparathyroidism
  • Malignancy
  • Miscellaneous

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Hypercalcemia." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307496/all/Hypercalcemia.
Hypercalcemia. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307496/all/Hypercalcemia. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Hypercalcemia. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307496/all/Hypercalcemia
Hypercalcemia [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307496/all/Hypercalcemia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hypercalcemia ID - 307496 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307496/all/Hypercalcemia PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -