DescriptionViral infection transmitted by mammals that causes CNS dysfunction
- Highest case fatality rate of any known infectious disease
- 35,000–59,000 people die per year worldwide
- Especially common in Southeast Asia, Philippines, Africa, South America, and Indian subcontinent
- The U.S. only has 2–3 human cases per year
- Most clinical cases in the U.S. from foreign travel and bat exposure
- In the U.S., bats are the most common reservoir (30.9%), followed by raccoons (29.4%), skunks (24.8%), foxes (5.9%), cats (4.4%), cattle (1.5%), and dogs (1.2%)
- Worldwide, dog bites are most common vector
- Squirrels, rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, and rabbits can also be infected but there has never been a reported case of human transmission
- Few rabies cases have been reported in transplant patients
- Negative-stranded RNA virus, family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus
- Progression of infection:
- Virus multiplies in local tissue
- Virus enters peripheral nerves and travels to the CNS
- Once in the CNS, rapid replication and dissemination causes neuronal dysfunction
- The virus then spreads back out along peripheral nerves to salivary glands, skin, cornea, and other organs
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Rabies." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307462/all/Rabies.
Rabies. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307462/all/Rabies. Accessed May 29, 2023.
Rabies. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307462/all/Rabies
Rabies [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 May 29]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307462/all/Rabies.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Rabies ID - 307462 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307462/all/Rabies PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -