- Disorder characterized by cessation of breathing during sleep:
- Defined as apneic episodes >10 s with brief EEG arousals or >3% oxygenation desaturation
- Risk factors:
- Obesity (strongest risk factor)
- >40 yr of age
- Upper airway anomalies
- Myxedema (hypothyroidism)
- Alcohol/sedative abuse
- Associated illness:
- Various dysrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation and bradyarrhythmia
- Right and left heart failure
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Hypertension poorly controlled by medical therapies
- Affects about 15% of males and 5% of females
- Prevalence has increased due to higher rates of obesity
- 80% of moderate or severe cases undiagnosed in middle-aged adults
Etiology3 classifications of sleep apnea:
- Obstructive (84%) is due to upper airway closure despite intact respiratory drive:
- Also known as Pickwickian syndrome
- Pharyngeal airway is narrowed
- Central (0.4%) is due to lack of respiratory effort despite patent upper airway
- Complex (15%) is due to a combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Sleep Apnea." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307460/all/Sleep_Apnea.
Sleep Apnea. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307460/all/Sleep_Apnea. Accessed June 9, 2023.
Sleep Apnea. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307460/all/Sleep_Apnea
Sleep Apnea [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 09]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307460/all/Sleep_Apnea.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Sleep Apnea ID - 307460 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307460/all/Sleep_Apnea PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -