Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Lymphocutaneous:
    • Most common form
    • Inoculation of fungus (Sporothrix schenckii) into skin/soft tissue
    • Disease with or without hematogenous spread after traumatic inoculation with soil or plant material
    • Secondary to animal bites/scratches, especially from cats, trauma
    • Increased risk: Farmers, gardeners, landscapers, forestry workers
  • Pulmonary:
    • Inhalation of conidia aerosolized from soil/plant decay
    • Increased risk: Alcoholics, diabetics, COPD, steroid users
  • Multifocal extracutaneous:
    • Cutaneous inoculation and hematologic spread
    • Increased risk: HIV/immunosuppressed patients

Etiology

  • Fungal infection caused by S. schenckii:
  • Dimorphic fungus
  • Occurs as mold on decaying vegetation, moss, and soil in temperate and tropical environments
  • Animal vectors, notably cats and armadillos

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