Congenital Heart Disease, Acyanotic

Congenital Heart Disease, Acyanotic is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

Abnormality in the cardiocirculatory system that is present at birth but does not cause mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood:
  • L→R shunting lesions:
    • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
    • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
    • Endocardial cushion defects (AV canal)
  • Ventricular outflow obstructions:
    • Coarctation of aorta (LV)
    • Aortic stenosis (LV)
    • Pulmonic stenosis (RV)
    • Hypoplastic left-heart syndrome (HLHS)
  • Ductal dependent: Symptoms as DA closes:
    • Coarctation of aorta
    • Critical aortic stenosis
    • Critical pulmonic stenosis
    • HLHS

Etiology

For most forms, cause is unknown:
  • Genetic: Down (AV canal), Turner (coarct)
  • Environmental: Congenital rubella (PDA, AS)

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