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Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral Valve Prolapse is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Bulging of 1 or both of the mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium during systole
  • Occurs when the leaflet edges of the mitral valve do not coapt
  • Commonly due to abnormal stretching of 1 of the mitral valve leaflets during systole:
    • Myxomatous proliferation of the spongiosa layer within the valve causing focal interruption of the fibrosa layer
    • Excessive stretching of the chordae tendineae, leading to traction on papillary muscles
  • Theoretical explanations for associated chest pain:
    • Focal ischemia from coronary microembolism due to platelet aggregates and fibrin deposits in the angles between the leaflets
    • Coronary artery spasm
  • Mitral regurgitation (MR) may occur in some patients.
  • Age of onset is 10–16 yr
  • Female > male (3:1)
  • Typically benign in young women, whereas men >50 yr tend to have serious sequelae and more often develop severe regurgitation requiring surgical intervention
  • Can be identified by ECG in 2–4% of the general population and in 7% of autopsies
  • A variety of neuroendocrine and autonomic disturbances occur in some patients
  • Genetics:
    • Strong hereditary component
    • Sometimes transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance

Etiology

  • Marfan syndrome
  • Relapsing polychondritis
  • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (i.e., types I, II, IV)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Stickler syndrome
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Polyarteritis nodosa
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • von Willebrand syndrome
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Mitral Valve Prolapse." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307417/all/Mitral_Valve_Prolapse.
Mitral Valve Prolapse. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307417/all/Mitral_Valve_Prolapse. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Mitral Valve Prolapse. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307417/all/Mitral_Valve_Prolapse
Mitral Valve Prolapse [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307417/all/Mitral_Valve_Prolapse.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Mitral Valve Prolapse ID - 307417 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307417/all/Mitral_Valve_Prolapse PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -