- Noninvasive diarrhea
- Found worldwide:
- 2–15% prevalence in developed nations
- 20–40% prevalence in developing nations
- 5% of all travelers’ diarrhea
- Most common intestinal parasite in the U.S.:
- Highest incidence in early summer months through fall
- Highest incidence in children aged 1–9 yr and adults aged 30–39 yr
- In 2010, 19,888 cases reported in the U.S. (mostly from Northern States)
- Fecal–oral transmission:
- Humans are major reservoir
- Waterborne and foodborne
- Zoonotic reservoir in both domestic and wild mammals
- Reservoir in contaminated surface water
- Populations at risk:
- Travelers to endemic areas (developing countries, wilderness areas of the U.S.)
- Children in day care centers and their close contacts
- Institutionalized persons
- Practitioners of anal sexual activity
- Giardia lamblia:
- A protozoan flagellate
- Also called Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis
- Ingested Giardia attach to intestinal villi
- Alters the intestinal brush-border enzymes, impairing digestion of lactose, and other saccharides
- No toxin produced
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Giardiasis." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307381/1.3/Giardiasis.
Giardiasis. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307381/1.3/Giardiasis. Accessed May 29, 2023.
Giardiasis. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307381/1.3/Giardiasis
Giardiasis [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 May 29]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307381/1.3/Giardiasis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Giardiasis ID - 307381 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307381/1.3/Giardiasis PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -