Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:
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- Neoplasms of WBCs that have undergone a malignant transformation
- Occurs with WBC >100,000/mm3
- Leads to occlusions of small vessels primarily in brain or lungs
- Present with confusion, stupor, or shortness of breath
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
- Overproduction of granulocytic WBCs (neutrophils)
- Neutrophil function preserved
- Philadelphia chromosome present in bone marrow of >95%
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
- Most common leukemia in adults
- Overproduction of monoclonal lymphocytes
- Cells accumulate in lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, spleen
- Particularly prone to herpes virus infections
- Proliferation of undifferentiated immature cells:
- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)—immature myeloid cells
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)—immature lymphoid cells (blasts)
- Rapidly fatal
- Cause unknown
- Familial clustering in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
- Increased incidence of AML, ALL, and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with ionizing radiation
- Usually have ALL:
- Most common pediatric cancer
- 60–80% remission in those who are standard risk
- Better overall prognosis, except if <1 yr of age
- May develop leukostasis at lower levels
- Allopurinol dose is 3 mg/kg.
- Ceftazidime dose is 50 mg/kg.
- 90% of leukemias are AML or ALL.
- Myeloid leukemias are more common.
- CLL is very rare in pregnancy.
- Chemotherapeutics may cause birth defects and/or preterm labor.
- Same prognosis as nonpregnant; do not delay therapy.
- Transfuse earlier than nonpregnant; keep hemoglobin >9.8 mg/dL.
More likely to present with CLL and CML