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Hypothermia

Hypothermia is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Emergency Central

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Basics

Description

  • Body temperature <35°C
  • Risk factors:
    • Poor temperature regulation:
      • Very young
      • Advanced age
      • Comorbid condition
      • Intoxication
  • Pathophysiology:
    • Loss of heat:
      • Radiation: Most rapid, 50% of heat loss
      • Conduction
      • Convection
      • Evaporation
      • Respiration
    • Heat production:
      • Shivering
      • Nonshivering thermogenesis
      • Increased thyroxine
      • Increased epinephrine

Etiology

  • Dermal disease:
    • Burn
    • Exfoliative dermatitis
    • Severe psoriasis
  • Drug induced:
    • Ethanol
    • Phenothiazines
    • Sedative–hypnotics
  • Environmental:
    • Immersion
    • Nonimmersion
  • Iatrogenic:
    • Aggressive fluid replacement
    • Heat stroke treatment
  • Metabolic:
    • Hypoadrenalism
    • Hypopituitarism
    • Hypothyroidism
  • Neurologic:
    • Acute spinal cord transection
    • Head trauma
    • Stroke
    • Tumor
    • Wernicke disease
  • Neuromuscular inefficiency:
    • Age extreme
    • Impaired shivering
    • Lack of acclimatization
  • Sepsis

Pediatric Considerations
Infants have a large body surface to mass ratio Child abuse.

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Hypothermia." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307341/all/Hypothermia.
Hypothermia. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307341/all/Hypothermia. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Hypothermia. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307341/all/Hypothermia
Hypothermia [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307341/all/Hypothermia.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hypothermia ID - 307341 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307341/all/Hypothermia PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -