Mushroom Poisoning

Mushroom Poisoning is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Amanitin/phalloidin:
    • Species:
      • Amanita phalloides (“death cap”)
      • Amanita virosa/Amanita verna (“destroying angel”)
      • Galerina marginata, Galerina venenata
    • Mechanism:
      • Cyclopeptide toxins inhibit RNA polymerase 2, which kills GI epithelium, hepatocytes, nephrocytes
  • Gyromitrin:
    • Species:
      • Gyromitra esculenta (“false morels”)
      • Other Gyromitra spp.
    • Mechanism:
      • Inhibits pyridoxal phosphate
      • Damage to RBCs, hepatocytes, neurons
  • Muscarine:
    • Species:
      • Inocybe (several species)
      • Clitocybe (several species)
    • Mechanism:
      • Parasympathomimetic
  • Coprine:
    • Species:
      • Coprinus atramentarius (“inky caps”)
    • Mechanism:
      • Blocks acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
      • Causes disulfiram-like reaction if mixed with alcohol
  • Ibotenic acid/muscimol:
    • Species:
      • Amanita pantherina (“the panther”)
      • Amanita muscaria (“fly agaric”)
    • Mechanism:
      • GABA agonists
  • Psilocin/psilocybin:
    • Species:
      • Psilocybe and Panaeolus spp. as well as others
    • Mechanism:
      • Similar structure to lysergic acid diethylamide, effect serotonin receptor
  • Gastric irritants:
    • Many various mushrooms, including those normally considered edible
  • Orellanine:
    • Species:
      • Cortinarius (several species)
    • Mechanism:
      • Direct renal toxicity
  • Tricholoma equestre (“man on horse”):
    • Rhabdomyolysis-inducing mushrooms
    • Unidentified myotoxin

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Citation

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TY - ELEC T1 - Mushroom Poisoning ID - 307331 Y1 - 2016 PB - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307331/all/Mushroom_Poisoning ER -