- Inadequacy of the venous valves that causes impaired venous drainage leading to edema of the lower extremities
- A chronic condition of lower-extremity vascular incompetence
- Normal blood flow in the venous system is unidirectional from the superficial veins to the deep veins
- Contraction of leg musculature and competent venous valvular function maintain this unidirectional flow
- Damage to the valves, e.g., following DVT, causes them to become rigid and they lose their ability to prevent retrograde blood flow properly
- Decreased venous return from lower extremities causes increased pressure and distention of the veins, which in turn causes separation of the valve leaflets
- Lower-extremity venous valvular incompetence leads to chronic venous insufficiency and venous varicosities
- Inadequacy of the venous valvular function causes impaired venous drainage, leading to lower-extremity edema
- Chronic venous insufficiency and resultant increased venous pressure transmission into the dermal microcirculation leads to extravasation of macromolecules and red blood cells causing inflammatory injury, resulting in skin integrity changes, ulcer formation, and poor healing
- Primary valve incompetence
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Risk factors:
- Advanced age (estimated prevalence of 5–30% of adult population)
- Sex (female:male predominance of 3:1)
- Family history of venous varicosity
- DVT or phlebitis
- Leg edema
- Prior lower-extremity injury
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Venous Insufficiency." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307320/all/Venous_Insufficiency.
Venous Insufficiency. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307320/all/Venous_Insufficiency. Accessed June 9, 2023.
Venous Insufficiency. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307320/all/Venous_Insufficiency
Venous Insufficiency [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 09]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307320/all/Venous_Insufficiency.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Venous Insufficiency ID - 307320 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307320/all/Venous_Insufficiency PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -