Red Eye

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Basics

Description

  • May be caused by almost any eye disorder
  • Often benign; but may represent systemic disease
  • Caused by vascular engorgement of conjunctiva
  • Main causes:
    • Inflammatory
    • Allergic
    • Infection
    • Trauma
  • Conjunctivitis is the most common etiology

Etiology

  • Inflammatory:
    • Uveitis:
      • Anterior and posterior
    • Iritis
      • Perilimbic injection
    • Episcleritis
      • Common but generally benign
    • Scleritis
      • Uncommon, inflammation of the sclera
    • Systemic inflammatory reactions
  • Allergic:
    • Due to histamine release and increased vascular permeability, resulting in:
      • Swelling of conjunctiva (chemosis)
      • Watery discharge
      • Pruritus
      • Usually bilateral
  • Infectious:
    • Keratitis
    • Infectious conjunctivitis
    • Orbital cellulitis:
      • Generally spread from sinus, skin, or blood
    • Dacryocystitis:
      • As result of lacrimal duct blockage
    • Canaliculitis
    • Endophthalmitis:
      • Intraocular infection, may be post op
  • Traumatic:
    • Corneal abrasion
    • Subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH)
    • Foreign body
    • Occult perforation
  • Other:
    • Pinguecula and pterygium, hemorrhage, blepharitis, dry eye (dysfunctional tear) syndrome, acute angle-closure glaucoma, ophthalmia neonatorum, conjunctival tumor

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Basics

Description

  • May be caused by almost any eye disorder
  • Often benign; but may represent systemic disease
  • Caused by vascular engorgement of conjunctiva
  • Main causes:
    • Inflammatory
    • Allergic
    • Infection
    • Trauma
  • Conjunctivitis is the most common etiology

Etiology

  • Inflammatory:
    • Uveitis:
      • Anterior and posterior
    • Iritis
      • Perilimbic injection
    • Episcleritis
      • Common but generally benign
    • Scleritis
      • Uncommon, inflammation of the sclera
    • Systemic inflammatory reactions
  • Allergic:
    • Due to histamine release and increased vascular permeability, resulting in:
      • Swelling of conjunctiva (chemosis)
      • Watery discharge
      • Pruritus
      • Usually bilateral
  • Infectious:
    • Keratitis
    • Infectious conjunctivitis
    • Orbital cellulitis:
      • Generally spread from sinus, skin, or blood
    • Dacryocystitis:
      • As result of lacrimal duct blockage
    • Canaliculitis
    • Endophthalmitis:
      • Intraocular infection, may be post op
  • Traumatic:
    • Corneal abrasion
    • Subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH)
    • Foreign body
    • Occult perforation
  • Other:
    • Pinguecula and pterygium, hemorrhage, blepharitis, dry eye (dysfunctional tear) syndrome, acute angle-closure glaucoma, ophthalmia neonatorum, conjunctival tumor

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