Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
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- Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel.
- The carpal tunnel is the area bound by the carpal bones and the transverse carpal ligament.
- The median nerve, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and flexor pollicis longus are located in the carpal tunnel.
- Carpal tunnel syndrome can be classified as acute or chronic.
- Snake bite
- High-pressure injection injury
- Occupational/overuse syndromes—high impact, repetitive motion
- Pregnancy, birth control pills
- Granulomatous disease: Tuberculosis, sarcoidosis
- Mass lesions with median nerve compression
- Multiple myeloma
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, acromegaly
- Chronic hemodialysis
Idiopathic causes are rare in children; most cases have a correctable cause including:
- Hamartoma of the median nerve
- Anomalous FDS
- Hemophilia with hematoma