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Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning

Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • 3 classes of calcium channel blockers (CCBs):
    • Phenylalkylamines (verapamil):
      • Vasodilation resulting in a decrease in BP
      • Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects: Reflex tachycardia not seen with a drop in BP.
    • Dihydropyridine (nifedipine):
      • Decreased vascular resistance resulting in a drop in BP
      • Little negative inotropic effect: Reflex tachycardia occurs
    • Benzothiazepine (diltiazem):
      • Decreased peripheral vascular resistance leading to a decrease in BP
      • Heart rate (HR) and cardiac output initially increased
      • Direct negative chronotropic effect, which leads to a fall in HR
  • Effects of calcium channel blockade
    • Calcium plays key role in cardiac and smooth muscle contractility
    • CCBs prevent
      • the entry of calcium, resulting in a lack of muscle contraction
      • the normal release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells, resulting in hyperglycemia

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Citation

Rosen, Peter, et al., editors. "Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307304/all/Calcium_Channel_Blocker_Poisoning.
Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307304/all/Calcium_Channel_Blocker_Poisoning. Accessed April 26, 2019.
Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning. (2016). In Rosen, P., Shayne, P., Barkin, A. Z., Wolfe, R. E., Hayden, S. R., Barkin, R. M., & Schaider, J. J. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Available from https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307304/all/Calcium_Channel_Blocker_Poisoning
Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning [Internet]. In: Rosen P, Shayne P, Barkin AZ, Wolfe RE, Hayden SR, Barkin RM, Schaider JJ, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2019 April 26]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307304/all/Calcium_Channel_Blocker_Poisoning.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Calcium Channel Blocker Poisoning ID - 307304 ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307304/all/Calcium_Channel_Blocker_Poisoning PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -