Meningitis

Meningitis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

CNS infection with inflammation of leptomeninges defined by an increased number of WBCs in the CSF most often associated with fever, nuchal rigidity, headache, and altered mental status

Etiology

  • Bacterial:
    • Neonates: Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli, Listeria monocytogenes
    • Children/adults: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, group B Streptococcus, and gram-negative bacilli
    • Elderly/alcoholic: S. pneumoniae, gram-negative bacilli, Listeria spp.
    • Neurosurgical patients: Staphylococcus and gram-negative organisms
    • Transplant recipients and dialysis patients: Increased incidence of Listeria spp. infection
    • AIDS: Above, plus tuberculosis, fungal, syphilis
  • Viral
  • Fungal
  • Chemical, drug, or toxin induced

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Basics

Description

CNS infection with inflammation of leptomeninges defined by an increased number of WBCs in the CSF most often associated with fever, nuchal rigidity, headache, and altered mental status

Etiology

  • Bacterial:
    • Neonates: Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli, Listeria monocytogenes
    • Children/adults: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, group B Streptococcus, and gram-negative bacilli
    • Elderly/alcoholic: S. pneumoniae, gram-negative bacilli, Listeria spp.
    • Neurosurgical patients: Staphylococcus and gram-negative organisms
    • Transplant recipients and dialysis patients: Increased incidence of Listeria spp. infection
    • AIDS: Above, plus tuberculosis, fungal, syphilis
  • Viral
  • Fungal
  • Chemical, drug, or toxin induced

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