Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:
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- Injuries to ligamentous supports of the ankle
- Ankle joint is a hinge joint composed of the tibia, fibula, and talus.
- Injuries may range from stretching with microscopic damage (grade I) to partial disruption (grade II) to complete disruption (grade III).
- Forced inversion or eversion of the ankle
- Forceful collisions
- 85–90% of ankle sprains involve lateral ligaments:
- Anterior talofibular (ATFL)
- Posterior talofibular (PTFL)
- Calcaneofibular (CFL)
- Usually the result of an inversion injury
- The ATFL is the most commonly injured.
- If the ankle is injured in a neutral position, the CFL is often injured.
- The PTFL is rarely injured alone.
- Injury to the deltoid ligament (connecting the medial malleolus to the talus and navicular bones) is usually the result of an eversion injury:
- Often associated with avulsion at the medial malleolus or talar insertion
- Rarely found as an isolated injury
- Suspect associated lateral malleolus fracture or fracture of the proximal fibula (Maisonneuve fracture).
- Syndesmosis sprains (injury to the tibiofibular ligaments or the interosseous ligament of the leg):
- Occur most commonly in collision sports
- Syndesmosis injuries (“high ankle sprains”) have a higher morbidity and potential for long-term complications.
- Children <10 yr with traumatic ankle pain and no radiologic evidence of fracture most likely have a Salter–Harris I fracture.
- The ligaments are actually stronger than the open epiphysis.