Iritis

Iritis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Inflammation of anterior uveal tract
  • Iritis, anterior uveitis, and iridocyclitis are synonymous
  • Iritis secondary to trauma is also called traumatic iritis
  • Acute and chronic presentations

Etiology

  • Most cases are idiopathic, but may be traumatic or associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious systemic diseases
  • Most prevalent in 30–50-yr old patients
  • M:F distribution is equal
  • May be acute or chronic
  • HLA B27 haplotype causative in up to 50% of cases
    • Ankylosing spondylitis
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Reactive Arthritis/Reiter syndrome
    • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Other noninfectious systemic diseases include the following:
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Behçet disease
    • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
    • Kawasaki syndrome
    • Interstitial nephritis
    • IgA nephropathy
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Drug reactions
    • Sjögren syndrome
  • Infectious conditions include the following:
    • Viral:
      • Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (most common)
      • Rubella
      • Measles
      • Adenovirus
      • Epstein–Barr virus
      • Herpes zoster virus
      • HIV
      • Mumps
      • Varicella
      • Cytomegalovirus
      • West Nile virus
      • Chikungunya
      • Dengue
      • Zika
    • Bacterial:
      • Tuberculosis
      • Syphilis
      • Pertussis
      • Brucellosis
      • Lyme disease
      • Chlamydia
      • Rickettsia
      • Gonorrhea
      • Leprosy
      • Leptospirosis
      • Cat scratch disease
    • Fungal
  • Malignancies include the following:
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Malignant melanoma
    • Retinoblastoma
  • Other causes include the following:
    • Cocaine use
    • Exposure to pesticides
    • Corneal foreign body
    • Blunt trauma
    • Postoperative complication

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Basics

Description

  • Inflammation of anterior uveal tract
  • Iritis, anterior uveitis, and iridocyclitis are synonymous
  • Iritis secondary to trauma is also called traumatic iritis
  • Acute and chronic presentations

Etiology

  • Most cases are idiopathic, but may be traumatic or associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious systemic diseases
  • Most prevalent in 30–50-yr old patients
  • M:F distribution is equal
  • May be acute or chronic
  • HLA B27 haplotype causative in up to 50% of cases
    • Ankylosing spondylitis
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Reactive Arthritis/Reiter syndrome
    • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Other noninfectious systemic diseases include the following:
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Behçet disease
    • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
    • Kawasaki syndrome
    • Interstitial nephritis
    • IgA nephropathy
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Drug reactions
    • Sjögren syndrome
  • Infectious conditions include the following:
    • Viral:
      • Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (most common)
      • Rubella
      • Measles
      • Adenovirus
      • Epstein–Barr virus
      • Herpes zoster virus
      • HIV
      • Mumps
      • Varicella
      • Cytomegalovirus
      • West Nile virus
      • Chikungunya
      • Dengue
      • Zika
    • Bacterial:
      • Tuberculosis
      • Syphilis
      • Pertussis
      • Brucellosis
      • Lyme disease
      • Chlamydia
      • Rickettsia
      • Gonorrhea
      • Leprosy
      • Leptospirosis
      • Cat scratch disease
    • Fungal
  • Malignancies include the following:
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Malignant melanoma
    • Retinoblastoma
  • Other causes include the following:
    • Cocaine use
    • Exposure to pesticides
    • Corneal foreign body
    • Blunt trauma
    • Postoperative complication

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