- Inflammation of the epiglottis and surrounding supraglottic region, which is potentially life threatening due to progressive airway obstruction
- Children are at greater risk of upper airway obstruction owing to:
- Decreased cross-sectional area of the upper airway (resistance is proportional to the inverse of the radius to the fourth power)
- Loose attachment of mucosal surface and increased vascularity of mucosa allows for edema
- Dynamic collapse of the airway
- A precipitous decline in the incidence of childhood epiglottitis since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae vaccination has occurred, although vaccine failure may result in rare cases among children who have been immunized
- In the post-Hib vaccine era, the mean age for this disease has increased, and it is now more commonly seen in adolescents and adults than in toddlers or young school-aged children
- May occur throughout the year
All patients with suspected epiglottitis require intensive monitoring and intervention. Rapid progression of airway obstruction may occur
- H. influenzae type B
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Group A β-hemolytic
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Less common infections include Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Candida
- Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder
- Hereditary angioedema
There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.
Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Epiglottitis, Pediatric." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307127/1.0/Epiglottitis_Pediatric.
Epiglottitis, Pediatric. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307127/1.0/Epiglottitis_Pediatric. Accessed May 28, 2023.
Epiglottitis, Pediatric. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307127/1.0/Epiglottitis_Pediatric
Epiglottitis, Pediatric [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 May 28]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307127/1.0/Epiglottitis_Pediatric.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Epiglottitis, Pediatric ID - 307127 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307127/1.0/Epiglottitis_Pediatric PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -