- Characteristic, acute episodes of physical symptoms and intense fear that rapidly peak within 10 min and resolve in ∼20 min
- There may be a nonfearful variant in medical patients
- Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks with ≥1 mo of persistence:
- Concerns about having another attack
- Worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks
- Behavioral change, such as phobic avoidance, related to the attacks
- Agoraphobia = anxiety related to being in places where escape is difficult
- Episodic, recurrent, or chronic attacks
- Frequently comorbid with depression, substance abuse, disability, suicidal tendency
- Probably genetic
- Family history of panic or anxiety is common
- Altered serotonin- and benzodiazepine-receptor function
Limbic system, norepinephrine release, other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) implicated, leading to “fight-or-flight” response
- Major life events in the year preceding onset
- Family history of panic or anxiety
- Childhood shyness or separation anxiety
- May develop in the course of predisposing physical illness or cocaine abuse:
- May persist after the illness or substance use has resolved
- Twice as common in women
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Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Panic Attack." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307107/all/Panic_Attack.
Panic Attack. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307107/all/Panic_Attack. Accessed June 2, 2023.
Panic Attack. (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307107/all/Panic_Attack
Panic Attack [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 June 02]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307107/all/Panic_Attack.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Panic Attack ID - 307107 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307107/all/Panic_Attack PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -