Herpes Simplex is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

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Basics

Description

  • Viral disease characterized by recurrent painful vesicular lesions of mucocutaneous areas
  • Lips, genitalia, rectum, hands, and eyes most commonly involved
  • Infection is characterized by 2 phases:
    • Primary, in which virus becomes established in a nerve ganglion;
    • Secondary, involves recurrence of disease at the same site
  • Incubation period is ∼4 days from exposure
  • Viral shedding occurs from 7–10 days (up to 23 days) in primary infection and 3–4 days in recurrent infections
  • Neonatal infections can occur in utero, intrapartum (most common), or postnatal
    • Occur in 1/3,500 births per year in the US
  • Human-to-human transmission
  • 60–90% of population is infected with herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
  • More common in blacks than whites in ages <40 yr
  • Females affected more than males

Etiology

  • HSV-1 or HSV-2 are DNA viruses of the Herpesviridae family
  • Viral transmission may occur via respiratory droplets, contact with mucosa or abraded skin with infected secretions:
    • Recurrent mucosal shedding of HSV may transmit the virus
    • Rate of recurrence varies with virus type and anatomic site
  • Both viruses infect oral or genital mucosa:
    • Most common for HSV-1 to cause oral infections and HSV-2 to cause genital infections

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Citation

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TY - ELEC T1 - Herpes Simplex ID - 307098 Y1 - 2016 PB - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307098/all/Herpes_Simplex ER -