Pulmonary Contusion

Pulmonary Contusion is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or .

Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

  • Transfer of kinetic energy to the lung, causing direct damage to the lung parenchyma, resulting in both hemorrhage and edema in the absence of a pulmonary laceration
  • Mortality rate is 10–25%
  • Independent risk factor for:
    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    • Pneumonia
    • Long-term respiratory dysfunction

Pathophysiology

  • Development of pulmonary contusion (PC):
    • Takes place in 2 stages:
      • First stage, which is related to the direct injury, results in alveolar hemorrhage and edema
      • Second stage is related to the indirect worsening of the injury as a result of measures that occur during the resuscitation of the patient, in particular, administration of IV fluids
  • Leads to:
    • Decreased lung compliance
    • Increased alveolar capillary permeability
    • Increased intrapulmonary shunting
    • Acute local and systemic inflammation
    • Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, acidosis
    • Increased respiratory work
    • Respiratory failure/ARDS

Etiology

  • Blunt or penetrating thoracic trauma
  • Sudden deceleration–compression
  • Fall from height
  • Motor vehicle accident
  • Assault
  • Missile

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or --

Basics

Description

  • Transfer of kinetic energy to the lung, causing direct damage to the lung parenchyma, resulting in both hemorrhage and edema in the absence of a pulmonary laceration
  • Mortality rate is 10–25%
  • Independent risk factor for:
    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    • Pneumonia
    • Long-term respiratory dysfunction

Pathophysiology

  • Development of pulmonary contusion (PC):
    • Takes place in 2 stages:
      • First stage, which is related to the direct injury, results in alveolar hemorrhage and edema
      • Second stage is related to the indirect worsening of the injury as a result of measures that occur during the resuscitation of the patient, in particular, administration of IV fluids
  • Leads to:
    • Decreased lung compliance
    • Increased alveolar capillary permeability
    • Increased intrapulmonary shunting
    • Acute local and systemic inflammation
    • Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, acidosis
    • Increased respiratory work
    • Respiratory failure/ARDS

Etiology

  • Blunt or penetrating thoracic trauma
  • Sudden deceleration–compression
  • Fall from height
  • Motor vehicle accident
  • Assault
  • Missile

There's more to see -- the rest of this entry is available only to subscribers.