Arterial Gas Embolism (Age)
- Results when air bubbles enter the pulmonary venous return from ruptured alveoli, then propagate through the systemic vasculature:
- Clinical manifestations depend on location of air bubbles in systemic vasculature system
- Also known as dysbaric air embolism or cerebral air embolism
- Caused by overpressurization of lung tissue, causing pleural tear with air entering the vascular circulation:
- Trapped air (in lungs with closed glottis) expands on diver ascent
- Boyle law: At a constant temperature, pressure (P) is inversely related to volume (V):
- PV = K (constant) or P1V1 = P2V2
- As pressure increases/decreases, volume decreases/increases
- Pulmonary atrioventricular (AV) shunts, or as paradoxical embolism via a patent foramen ovale
- Breath holding during ascent:
- Symptoms attributable to a shower of bubbles and multiple blood vessel involvement
- Iatrogenically during placement of central venous pressure (CVP) lines, cardiothoracic surgery, or hemodialysis
- Penetrating injuries to heart, with emergent repair of cardiac wound
There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.
Schaider, Jeffrey J., et al., editors. "Arterial Gas Embolism (Age)." 5-Minute Emergency Consult, 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016. Emergency Central, emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307090/all/Arterial_Gas_Embolism__Age_.
Arterial Gas Embolism (Age). In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, et al, eds. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307090/all/Arterial_Gas_Embolism__Age_. Accessed May 29, 2023.
Arterial Gas Embolism (Age). (2016). In Schaider, J. J., Barkin, R. M., Hayden, S. R., Wolfe, R. E., Barkin, A. Z., Shayne, P., & Rosen, P. (Eds.), 5-Minute Emergency Consult (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307090/all/Arterial_Gas_Embolism__Age_
Arterial Gas Embolism (Age) [Internet]. In: Schaider JJJ, Barkin RMR, Hayden SRS, Wolfe RER, Barkin AZA, Shayne PP, Rosen PP, editors. 5-Minute Emergency Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2016. [cited 2023 May 29]. Available from: https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307090/all/Arterial_Gas_Embolism__Age_.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Arterial Gas Embolism (Age) ID - 307090 ED - Barkin,Adam Z, ED - Shayne,Philip, ED - Rosen,Peter, ED - Schaider,Jeffrey J, ED - Barkin,Roger M, ED - Hayden,Stephen R, ED - Wolfe,Richard E, BT - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307090/all/Arterial_Gas_Embolism__Age_ PB - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ET - 5 DB - Emergency Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -