Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
- Dengue fever occurs secondary to dengue viral infection.
- Most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection.
- Poorly understood immunopathologic response causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).
- DHF and DSS usually occur in patients with previous exposure to dengue virus.
- Hemorrhagic manifestations occur after defervescence of fever.
- Vascular permeability increases.
- Plasma extravasates into extravascular space, including pleural and abdominal cavities.
- Bleeding tendency
- Shock may ensue.
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may develop.
- Dengue fever, DHF, and DSS are all self-limited.
- World Health Organization—required criteria for the diagnosis of DHF:
- Bleeding evidenced by one of the following: Positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, GI tract bleeding, injection site bleeding
- Increased vascular permeability and plasma leakage as evidenced by an elevated hematocrit (>20%), decreased hematocrit >20% after volume replacement or pleural effusions, ascites or hypoproteinemia
- Thrombocytopenia (<100,000/mm3)
- World Health Organization—required criteria for diagnosis of DSS:
- All 4 criteria of DHF +
- Rapid and weak pulse
- Narrow pulse pressure or hypotension for age
- Cold, clammy skin
- Occurs in tropical and subtropical regions: Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and the Caribbean
- Caused by dengue virus serotypes 1–4
- Transmitted by mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
- Incubation period of 3–14 days
- There is only transient and poor cross protection among the 4 serotypes